Experts in neurology Laxman Bahroo, DO and Mindy K. Bixby, DO share insights into the diagnosis, management, and treatment of OFF episodes in Parkinson’s disease and highlight key therapeutic options currently available and in development.
EP. 1: Defining OFF Episodes in Parkinson’s Disease
Laxman Bahroo, DO and Mindy K. Bixby, DO define OFF episodes in Parkinson’s Disease and discuss how they are often unpredictable and variable in their severity.
EP. 2: Subcutaneous Apomorphine for Managing PD OFF Episodes
Key opinion leaders in neurology discuss the safety and efficacy of apomorphine hydrochloride and provide insights into the advantages and disadvantages of its subcutaneous formulation.
EP. 3: Sublingual Apomorphine for Managing PD OFF Episodes
Experts in the management of Parkinson’s Disease OFF episodes provide insight into the sublingual formulation of apomorphine hydrochloride and discuss differences in its safety and efficacy profiles.
EP. 4: Comparing Sublingual and Subcutaneous Apomorphine
Mindy K. Bixby, DO and Laxman Bahroo, DO compare subcutaneous and sublingual apomorphine hydrochloride and discuss important factors to consider when selecting a formulation.
EP. 5: Levodopa Inhalation Powder for Managing PD OFF Episodes
Experts in Parkinson’s Disease build a discussion on the use of levodopa inhalation powder for the management of OFF time and reflect on patients’ considerations when switching therapies.
EP. 6: Oral Agents for the Management of OFF Time in PD
Expert neurologists consider the advantages and disadvantages of oral agents for OFF time in Parkinson’s Disease such as opicapone, extended-release amantadine, and istradefylline.
EP. 7: Surgical Options for Challenging OFF Episodes in PD
Laxman Bahroo, DO and Mindy K. Bixby, DO provide insight into factors to consider for patients with challenging off time including surgical and device-assisted therapeutic options.
EP. 8: Treatments in Development for OFF Episodes in PD
Leaders in neurology discuss the development of infusion formulations of apomorphine and levodopa/carbidopa as well as oral agents with novel mechanisms of extended-release delivery.
EP. 9: Patient QoL and Access to Care During COVID-19
Key opinion leaders in Parkinson’s Disease discuss the importance of improving quality of life and access to care when managing OFF episodes for patients during COVID-19.
EP. 10: Take-Home Messages for Managing OFF Episodes in PD
Mindy K. Bixby, DO and Laxman Bahroo, DO give key advice to community neurologists and emphasize the importance of effective communication between patients and providers.
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