Peer Exchange


Managing OFF Episodes in Parkinson Disease

A discussion regarding the meaning of OFF as it relates to Parkinson disease.

Key opinion leaders discuss adequately treating Parkinson disease symptoms with levodopa.

Expert neurologists consider possible mechanisms causing OFF in Parkinson disease.

The impact of Parkinson medications causing gastrointestinal dysmotility and its effect on optimal therapy.

A panel discusses different types of OFF episodes in Parkinson disease and highlights strategies for discussing with patients and caregivers.

Physicians suggest different questions to ask to patients to help assess OFF episodes in Parkinson disease.

 Key opinion leaders debate non-motor versus motor symptoms in Parkinson disease and the undertreatment in some patients.

A discussion on educating caregivers on identifying OFF symptoms in Parkinson patients, including using symptom lists and diaries.

Panelists discuss the major impact of OFF episodes on quality of life for patients, including personal anecdotes.

Expert neurologists debate goals in management of OFF episodes in Parkinson disease including shared clinical decision making.

Panelists discuss different management options of OFF episodes with adjunctive dopamine agonists.

A discussion about non-dopaminergic agents and the balance of dyskinesia and OFF episodes.

Key opinion leaders debate the use of on-demand non-oral therapies, including subcutaneous apomorphine, for treatment of OFF episodes in Parkinson disease. 

Expert neurologists share insight on patient selection for on-demand non-oral therapies.

Key opinion leaders discuss the advantages of some future infusion-based continuous therapies for Parkinson disease.

Physicians offer different ancillary support options to patients on infusion-based therapies for Parkinson disease.

Expert neurologists consider the future treatments for Parkinson disease and provide community neurologists with management advice.
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