Take this brief quiz to test your knowledge of the increasing impact neurological disorders are having on patients’ health and well-being.
A recent analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 provided updated estimates of the impact of 15 neurological disorder categories on disability, as measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and deaths.1
As the burden of neurological disorders continues to increase, the new knowledge may help efforts to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies.
Take this brief quiz to test your knowledge of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders. If you would like more information on any of the questions, please see the original article, “The Mounting Burden of Neurological Disease,” on which this quiz is based.
The correct answer is A. First in causing DALYs, second in causing deaths. The combined neurological disorders ranked just ahead of cardiovascular diseases (excluding stroke) in causing global DALYs and just behind cardiovascular diseases in causing deaths. They accounted for 276 million DALYs (11.6% of global DALYs for all diseases) and were the underlying cause in 9 million deaths (16.5% of global deaths).
The correct answer is B. Increased by 39% and 15%, respectively. The numbers were driven up by population increase and aging, even though the global population is exposed to a lower risk of death from these causes. Decreases in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were seen only in infectious neurological disorders (meningitis, encephalitis, and tetanus).
The correct answer is A. True. Development of new and better strategies to treat or prevent the major neurological disorders and implementation of proven effective prevention strategies for stroke and infectious neurological disorders are recommended.
The correct answer is C. Stroke. Stroke contributed to 42.2% of global neurological DALYs. Migraine contributed to 16.3%, Alzheimer disease and other dementias to 10.4%, and meningitis to 7.9%. Stroke was the leading neurological disorder in age-standardized DALY rates in 19 of 21 GBD world regions.
The correct answer is A. Significantly higher in males. The burden was significantly higher in males than in females for traumatic brain injury, Parkinson disease, tetanus, motor neuron diseases, and stroke. Migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females.
The correct answer is D. Infectious neurological conditions. Epilepsy DALYs were highest in persons aged 5 to 29 years. Migraine and tension-type headache were large contributors in young and middle-aged adults. Stroke was the dominant cause of neurological burden at 60 to 84 years. Alzheimer disease and other dementias were the dominant cause of neurological burden in adults aged 90 years and older.
The correct answer is B. Infectious causes, stroke, Alzheimer disease and other dementias, and brain and other CNS cancers. Headaches, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury were significant contributors to years lived with disability. Other contributors were epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer disease and other dementias.
The correct answer is C. Stroke, Alzheimer disease and other dementias, and idiopathic epilepsy. Risk-attributable DALYs accounted for 88.8%, 22.3%, and 14.1% of stroke, Alzheimer disease and other dementias, and idiopathic epilepsy DALYs, respectively. The proportion was very small for meningitis, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis and zero for tetanus, brain and other CNS cancers, migraine and tension-type headache, and Parkinson disease.
For more information on all questions and answers, please see “The Mounting Burden of Neurological Disease.”
1. GBD 2015 Neurological Disorders Collaborator Group. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16:877-897. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30299-5.